Natural Landscapes.

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Amazon Basin TukiTuki Catchement:


The Tukituki river drains the eastern part of the central Ruahine Range. Its catchment area covers over 2500 metres sq.
It is made up of a number of seperate rivers rising in the main range which all flow across the Ruataniwha depression (Atua syncline)
Ruahine Range 2600m
Tukituki river 126km long.

Orogeny (plate tectonics).

Orogeny Earth's Layers

Convection currents
Faultines: Ruahine, Mohaka, Wairarapa, Wakara.
New Rangitoto, Elsthorpe.
Atua The syncline in which the Tukituki river travels along. Pokawa
The landforms of the Tukituki catchment are the result of geologically rapid uplift combined with extensive faulting and differential movement (movement that occurs at different speeds). The subduction of the pacific plate under the indo-australian has given rise to the axial range which is known as the Ruahine's, a central belt of lowlands and accretionary uplift towards the coast in a series of parallel ranges (
Slow addition to land by deposition of water-borne sediment). Denudation processes have shaped the hill country and range land forms while sedimentation of the products of denudation has determined the shape and geology of the lowland areas.
Uplift occurred when immense friction created by the subduction zone let go and the land was forced upwards (5 million years ago).
Types of faultlines/Landforms present in Tukituki:
Horst :piece of uplifted earth.
Graben: Piece of sucken earth.
Faultines: Ruahine, Mohaka, Wairarapa, Wakara.
New Rangitoto, Elsthorpe,
Atua- Tukituki river travels along. Pokawa

Formation Of Tukituki Landscape:


(refer to your topographical map)
Orographic rainfall
Frontal Rain
Average rainfall in the catchment varies from 800mm per year at Waipukurau to more than 3000mm per year in the Ruahine Range.
Eastern Hill Country: 1200mm per annum in the lower areas to over 2200mm in the upper catchment areas.
Central plains: Under 1000mm

Soils: Refer to your Chloropleth Map

Soils in the Tukituki catchment are closely related to the parent material from which they are derived from. The taupo eruption 2000 years ago and eruptions since have had a major influence on the soil types.
Steepland soils: Located in the Ruahine Range and the headwater channels of the main watercourses, at higher elevations of the Eastern hill country and elevated areas flanking the lower Tukituki river. Greywacke and argillite steepland soils have low fertility and are extremely thin therefore are susceptable to erosion. Severe scree, slip and wind erosion following high intensity rainfall, vegetation removal or frost action. These soil areas support very sparse vegetative cover
Yellow Brown loams: Located on Western foothills and rolling country to the east of these foothills. This soil type is the result of extensive deposits of tephra and tephric loess which is prevelant in this region.
Recent soils: Have been created after loess and tephra were deposited. These soils lie close to the main waterways. Derived from alluvium and gravels have medium to high fertility except in areas where the soils are stony or shallow. Friable nature of these soils combined with their naturally good drainage produces a potential for wind erosion and droughts through summer.
Yellow Grey Loams: Located primarily in the central catchment hills and plains and in the lower slopes and plains bodering bodering the Tukituki river to the east. Yellow grey loam is the resulted of extensive loess deposits which are derived from the weathering of the eastern hill country. Yellow grey loam soils represent a valley fill situation.
Organic peat soils: Of minor occurance. Present around Lake Hatuma, Horseshoe lake and Te Aute peat swamp. These three area are examples of structural depressions in the landscape, therefore giving rise to wetland environments. These soils are dominated by slow drainage and high moisture content with consequent low temperature and reducing conditions. These conditions present serious limitations to continuous grazing and growth of common pasture plants and clover. These soils are are formed from plant material that has accumulated in bogs.
Yellow Brown Earths and podzols: Located predominantly in the eastern hill country. The yellow brown earth is derived from sandstone and mudstone and as a result soils here can be affected by long periods of saturation causing earthflow or slump erosion. Also due to soils heavy texture periods of uncontrolled run-off can result in gully erosion. This soil has high fertility but is poorly drained due to heavy texture.


Insert Levels of forest here.
Indigenous forest, shrubland and alpine grassland cover 10% of the catchment area.
Ruahine Range: The vegetation pattern on the Ruahine Range is determined by altitude. The lower regions on the fringe of the Ruahine forest park are covered by beech-podocarp forest of Red beech, rimu, miro, Kamahi and tawa. Red beech is common on mid valley slopes with Black beech frequent on dry slopes. Totara, mahoe and broadleaf are dominant as intermediate species at elevations between 600 and 1200 metres. Mountain Beech is associated with red beech above 850 metres and becomes dominant on the higher slopes and ridges above 1000 metres and up to 1400 metres.
Above 1400 metres herbfields and alpine grasslands of snowgrass and red tussock co-exist with sub-alpine shrublands of manuka, leatherwood, and Hebe. Alpine peat bogsare present along the range crest with red tussocks and shallow tarns with sphagnum moss rim growing on it.

Human Perspectives:


Vertical erosion: Is occuring on the Ruahine ranges as the eroded material is being transported down the range in vertical movement.
Transportation processes: Solution, traction, saltation

Old exam Answers:

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